The hen bearing(carrying) gold eggs (Interview of the general director of Joint-Stock Company MMTS " Kurgan - Moscow " Men'shchikovoj of Larissa to the journalist of the city newspaper " Kurgan and курганц
INTERVIEW of the general DIRECTOR of Joint-Stock Company MMTS " barrow - Moscow " L.V.MEN'SHCHIKOVOJ to the CORRESPONDENT of the NEWSPAPER " Kurgan and курганцы "
Within three weeks the group of our fellow countrymen of 10 person was on training in San Francisco (staff(state) California, USA) under the program « Cooperation of the professional organizations ».
The structure of group included heads of the enterprises concerning an infrastructure of support of small business of Kurgan and area, and also representatives of Administration of Kurgan area and. Шадринска.
We talk to the participant of this trip, the general director of Joint-Stock Company « the Inter-regional marketing centre "Kurgan - Moscow" (Kurgan) Меньщиковой Larissa.
Larissa Витальевна who has organized this trip?
Department of the International Programs of the State University of San Francisco. As the sponsor the Department of educational and cultural programs of the Department of state of USA has acted. All organizational actions in Russia, including perfect rounds of potential trainees, were carried out(spent) by the International Advice(council) on scientific researches and exchanges (IREX).
Tell about the purposes of this visit and the impressions.
The opportunity to get acquainted with the American businessmen, the noncommercial organizations similar to our agency, directions and style of their work, mutual relation with authority etc. was given to us, that is, to look after as though all "chain": starting(beginning) from idea of creation of business, before his(its) opening and comprehensive support. And, at once I shall tell, that all expectations were justified.
First of all, I shall stop on the concept – « small business in an American way ».
Small business in USA are the enterprises in which it is borrowed(occupied) from 20 up to 100 person in the industry, from 4 up to 5 - in trade, 1–2 in tourism.
By available estimations, on a share of small business rather significant part of a total internal product in USA is necessary. Small business is a basis of economy of USA and therefore the number of the noncommercial organizations and the governmental structures there is great, basic which purpose of work is rendering assistance and supports to small business that it(he) on equal could compete to the large enterprises.
In 1953 the Congress of USA created Management on affairs of small business (SBA), one of major which directions of activity, granting loans for small business is. Management does not give loans, it represents itself as the guarantor for banks. To receive the credit in bank to the American businessman also it is uneasy, as well as in Russia (the credit history, presence of the skilled personnel, the certain size of proceeds etc. is necessary). The maximal sum of the loan makes 2 million dollars. As a rule, the loan is given for expansion of business, the repayment or rent of a building etc.
In Management exists three basic programs of loans. The loan is given out to small business for the term of from 10 till 25 years.
For a covering of the charges under given out credits Management raises a guarantee payment which size depends on the sum and term of the loan. In the event that the diagram of payments is broken, to work are connected responsible(crucial) under loans. They can offer the businessman the conciliatory proposal on payment of a debt. In the event that the businessman refuses "to cooperate" with Management, it(he) automatically gets in « the black list »: it is more to expect for reception of the credit to it(him) it is not necessary.
Within all last year our centre together with Kurgan agency, a department of small business and sector of the territorial state order of regional administration realized actions of the project « Development of mechanisms for attraction of subjects of small enterprises to performance of the state order ». Naturally, it was interesting to us to learn(find out) about an operational experience of Management on the given question.
In 2003 with the Government of USA it was allocated 240 billion dollars for support of small business. The largest госзаказчиком is the Government of USA. It in 2003 has got the goods (works, services) for the sum 247 billion dollars, thus small business has received госконтрактов for the sum from above 62,7 billion dollars.
Besides the large enterprises have given 34,5 billion dollars to small business in quality субподряда (it is stipulated by the American legislation).
At Management on affairs of small business there is a division under contracts which conducts the register of firms – potential suppliers, gives out certificates of conformity (it some kind of the document proving to an opportunity of a small enterprise to execute госконтракт).
The small enterprise wins госконтракт in competitive competition. The basic criterion – the price. The economy has not an effect for quality as against the Russian validity.
There is a special Web-site where the information on forthcoming competitions is free-of-charge published. Competitions will be carried out(spent) within one year. The Russian organizations also can take part in competitions if in them there are no certain restrictions.
In Management there is a special division which assists the foreign companies, wishing to participate in tenders. Those who is interested in reception of a similar sort of the information, can address in our centre.
Not the secret, that in Russia in the field of the state order exists set of infringements. How with it affairs in America are?
Similar infringements are and in USA. So, contracts the businessmen having communications(connections) in the Government really can receive. In reception of the state order in California the small enterprises headed афроамериканцами had long time of the privilege. Many small enterprises do not participate in госпоставках in view of the fear, insufficient experience, knowledge, technical equipment. Besides participation in competition demands filling a plenty of papers, and probability of reception of the order – low. That is the reasons of not so active participation the same, as at the Russian businessmen.
And still you assert(approve), what small business in America is in every possible way supported?
The infrastructure of support of small business is advanced very well. Small business is « the hen bearing(carrying) gold eggs ». And, therefore the Government of USA does(makes) everything that it(him) to support. At Management on affairs of small business the Association of advisers is created. In it(her) work skilled adviser - practice, which free-of-charge will give advice(councils) how to begin business, to overcome difficulties in management of firm, will consult on financial and tax questions. Besides individual consultations in association seminars be held. Cost minimal – 30-40 dollars for 5 lectures. Most frequently the American businessmen visit(attend) seminars on themes: « How to begin new business », « Drawing up of the business - plan », « Marketing planning ». Besides businessmen free-of-charge can take advantage of library, computers with an output(exit) in the Internet, various directories. Consultations will be carried out(spent) both in English, and in Russian languages.
It is interesting, that practically all organizations belonging to an infrastructure of support of small business, exist due to financing private persons and corporations.
In this connection it would be desirable to tell even about one organization - the enterprise centre "Renaissance". Annually services of the centre existing on private(individual) means, use more than 1000 person. For beginning(starting) businessmen trainings - classes by duration of 80 hours (14 weeks) on a theme will be carried out(spent): « How to plan the business ». At the centre the business - incubator and female business center operates.
In USA it is more complex(difficult) to woman to begin business and to receive the finance. We have visited the Female Technological Centre, the basic клиентками which are women - businessmen. For five years of work of the centre, it(him) клиентками there were more than thousand women. Here they receive professional consultations on questions of the analysis of a financial condition of firm, development of strategy of development, creation of a Web-site, search of investors etc. The Centre is a noncommercial organization which half of incomes is formed due to enterprise activity (training, paid consultations). 50 more interests make donations of private persons and the companies.
The important role in support of small business is played by commercial and industrial chambers (ТПП). We have got acquainted with work of three of them: cities of San Francisco, Oakland and Милбрэй. Budget ТПП on 50 percents is formed due to a membership dues, 50 percents make incomes of enterprise activity.
The basic directions of work of chambers are: lobbying of interests of small business, the organization of the business - meetings, training programs and consultations, advertising support etc. And at each chamber exists "highlight". So, ТПП San Francisco organizes business - meetings « 100 on 100 » during which it is possible to get acquainted with other businessmen: to find clients and partners. ТПП Oakland arranges business - breakfasts with the mayor and organizes baseball meetings. Feature ТПП of. Милбрэй realization and preparation « Festival fault » is.
It is necessary to mention the Association of small business created in staff(state) California. It too the noncommercial organization, within 24 years engaged in support of small business. The association protects rights working (observance by employers компенсационных payments, duration of a working day, questions of public health services etc.), achieves reduction of bureaucratic procedures at registration of licenses, participates in acceptance of "fair" taxes for small business, assists in reception of the state contracts, foreign trade activities, is engaged in questions of increase of a qualifying level of workers of small enterprises.
It is necessary to note also, that the administration of staff(state) does not put means in development of small business, she(it) only creates conditions for his(its) high-grade development, for a healthy competition. To small enterprises it is assisted in promotion of production on the new markets.
Experience of San Francisco where the department of development of municipal economy at a mayoralty helps business in reception of loans is interesting. By a department it is developed three programs of loans. So, at a rate of up to 25 thousand dollars needy inhabitants, and also beginning(starting) businessmen can receive a loan. The loan at a rate of up to 100 thousand dollars, as a rule, is given small enterprises for purchase of the equipment (goods), repair, construction or rent. Thus a necessary condition is creation of new workplaces. For the sum of 35 thousand dollars borrowed, small enterprises should create even 1 workplace, and not less than 51 percents of the created workplaces should be given to needy inhabitants of San Francisco.
Larger loan (over 100 thousand dollars) can be given to those small enterprises which participate in the special city programs directed on improvement of economic development (an accomplishment of city, creation of new workplaces).
Addressing for the loan, it is necessary to present the business - plan to prove the financial stability and, to show experience and ability in the future to pay a duty.
The American businessmen, wished to export the goods (works, services) can address in Administration of commerce of USA which has representations in 24 countries, including in four Russian cities. Management supports a Russian-speaking site where the information on the markets of the countries of the CIS contains. Simultaneously Russian businessmen with his(its) help can be prepared for business dealing with the American companies better. There are even special sections, having seen(overlooked) which it is possible to find to themselves partners to get technical support, to pass training.
In general(common) our trip appeared very useful and to much us has learned. From the American experience we shall try to apply something on the Russian ground.
What impressions have remained with you as a whole?
The best! That we could learn(find out) the American traditions, a history, cultures, mentality better, organizers of the program have placed us in the American families. These people, agreed three weeks to be under one roof with Russian, all interested literally about our country, starting(beginning) from family and work up to economic and political conditions in Russia.
We are indefinitely grateful to them for hearty welcome and hospitality!
And, that the most remarkable, we somehow at once "have accustomed", as if all life were good friends. Impressions, certainly. Weight. One of the strongest, for example, that русскоговорящая totals a part of the population of a gulf of San Francisco about(near) 200 тыс.человек. And, though the Russian large business here is not submitted, tens Russian experts, first of all, in the field
of programming and computer technologies, work under private(individual) contracts.
Thank you for the interesting story, and – successes on the Russian ground!
Svetlana Kirsanova, the journalist of the city newspaper " Kurgan and курганцы "