Despite of occuring opinion about "деградации" the population and his(its) switching on visual and other technological versions of cultural production, reading of books in Russia remains while to one of the most popular forms of realization of leisure.
Book business - one of the oldest sectors of market economy where the Soviet citizens began to show the enterprise talents. In the beginning of 90 everyone who had propensity to business, have rushed first of all to trade in clothes and products, and in the second turn - in publishing house and book-trade. Demand for books then was huge, besides publishing business did not demand the big capital investments. To this it is necessary to add disinterested love to books which many pioneers of book business had. In a result for short term in first half 90th years in Russia thousand new publishing houses have appeared. Many exist till now, in particular, leaders of the market - "Эксмо" and АСТ - have appeared in this epoch. Thus both the above-stated branch leaders, and many other players originally were the book-selling organizations. Then dealers have started to be engaged in the edition of the most scarce books - off and on. Gradually trading firms have developed into high-grade publishing houses (according to a site www.pdffactory.com).
It would seem, having so long history, book business should become a sample of development of branch on market rails. However, heroically having arisen in heat 90, the Russian publishing system has stood almost in a constant kind. To tell the truth, in 1996 the branch has undergone the first crisis of overproduction - people has gorged on "анжелик". Publishing houses had to improve polygraphy, their specialization has amplified, in the market there were license products - for example, translation children's books with illustrations. The ambassador дефолта 1998 in Russia the rich people "disappointed" in other branches of business have appeared. In publishing capitals from sectors new to him(it) began to act. Has most of all come money from banks, in particular - in Saint Petersburg. In 1998 there were such publishing houses, as "Amphora" and " Альпина Business of axle Boxes ". However and then qualitative changes in the market has not taken place. Down to today overwhelming number of publishing houses are rather small, independent, closed and extremely opaque organizations (according to a site www.pdffactory.com).
Thus, book business actively develops in Russia 15 years, in the country some thousand publishing houses operate, and the volume of the market reaches(achieves) 2,2 billion Estimation of rates of growth of the market are in a range from 10 % up to 20 %.
The market of book production can be divided(shared) into two basic segments:
On a share of books in 2007 it was necessary 72,9 % of the general(common) circulation of the issued literature, and on a share of brochures, accordingly, 22,1 %. (Rice 1) In comparison with 2006 the share of books has decreased almost on 10 %, and the share of brochures has accordingly increased.
* According to a site - http: // marketing.rbc.ru/research/5629499535111 67.shtml
The greatest shares in structure of the book market on thematic sections borrow(occupy):
the political and social and economic literature - 28,3 % (more than 30 757 names);
fiction - 14,5 % (more than 15 779 names);
литература on formation(education), culture and mass media - 14,1 % (more than 15 350 names);
техническая the literature - 12,7 % (about 13 850 names).
Other themes borrow(occupy) a little bit smaller shares of the market.
The greatest share in structure of release of books and brochures on a special-purpose designation belongs to educational and methodical editions and makes 32,2 % (214,4 million copies). On the second place there are literary and art editions from shares of the market of 19,2 % (127,8 million copy). And the third place belongs to editions for children and youth of 18,1 % (120,2 million copy). Also the big share editions for a wide range of readers - borrow(occupy) 14,9 % (98,9 million copy). On a share of other editions it is necessary 15,7 % from the general(common) circulation of books and brochures.
The portrait of the typical reader looks as follows: she is the woman in the age of 18-35 years with higher education, with the income more than 4500 roubles, living in Moscow (according to a site http: // marketing.rbc.ru/research/5629499535111 67.shtml).
The share of serial editions, according to the Russian book chamber, has made 51,7 % from the general(common) circulation of books, and a share translation - 12,3 % (according to a site http: // marketing.rbc.ru/research/5629499535111 67.shtml).
The volume of import of book production to Russia has increased on 9,7 % and by 2007 has made 192,4 million in money terms. The leader on volumes of import of book production was Germany. In structure of import the basic place separate sheets and other kinds of production (borrow(occupy) maintenance instructions, the engineering specifications, manuals, books on art, gift books, art albums, fiction).
That fact is important also, that the volume of export in 2007 was reduced to 7,25 %. Leaders on volumes of export of book production in 2007 were India, Iran and USA (according to a site http: // www.mediaguide.ru/? p=news*id=48980395).
Experts mark steady growth of names of books and brochures at decrease(reduction) of total circulation of publishing houses. The quantity(amount) of the issued names in 2007 has made 108791 printed units (according to the Russian book chamber), that means перешагивание the certain boundary - 100 thousand names. On this parameter Russia has left on 3 place in the world.
Now in the book market of Russia it is possible to allocate some large publishing houses. By quantity(amount) of names of the let out literature are in the lead "Эксмо", "АСТ", "Олма-Пресс", "Дрофа", thus the situation has not changed at all since 2005. Within several years in leaders on volume of let out circulations the following publishing houses keep: " Эксмо "," АСТ "," Education "," Дрофа "," the Flamingo "/" Олма-Пресс ". On circulation of ten largest publishing houses borrows(occupies) 34 % of the market, however in cost expression on them it is necessary more than half of book market of Russia. The current situation shows the tendency to consolidation and integration of publishing houses. These bargains pass sometimes on rather specific, characteristic only for publishing business to circuits. The matter is that value of publishing house is substantially defined(determined) by quality of his(its) command(team). Large prefer to not buy firm and to absorb commands(teams) of skilled editors. Cooperation with fine publishing house can begin from the joint project. Fine - thinks out idea of the book, finds the author, prepares the text, large - puts means in duplicating and gives the реализационные channels. The profit on the project shares between partners, and in the target data names of both publishing houses, as a rule, cost(stand). After some period of cooperation the large firm entirely can offer to proceed(pass) to a command(team) of the partner under the aegis. Thus the younger partner sometimes formally keeps independence - though actually it means, that it(he) simply takes from large group on аутсорсинг works on editing and preparation of the text. Now only the large publishing houses having own strong system of distribution, can provide to the books scale and effective work with retail operators. Today such - units, the others work through wholesalers which assortment from many thousand positions allows to advance at the best топ-100 each publishing house. And all other books remain to lay somewhere in a warehouse. If the small enterprise gets in structure big all resources big become accessible to it(him).
АСТ - the largest Russian publishing house - has special propensity to similar cooperation with fine and average, with their subsequent absorption. Due to such policy(politics) group " АСТ " consists of 50 separate editorial commands(teams), and actually реализационные divisions of group operate this creative facilities(economy).
The second giant - "Эксмо" - prefers absorption of fine players without their preservation бренда though also resorts to joint projects - for example, with publishing houses " Око " or " Zebra Е ". However, there are also official purchases: in the beginning of this year group " АСТ " has got " Аванту + " - the leader in sphere of release of encyclopedias. Experts estimated cost of the bargain in a range from 4 million up to 10 million.
In the beginning of October "Эксмо" has finished the bargain on purchase of 25 % of publishing house " God-sends, Ivanov and Фербер ", specializing on the business literature (estimated cost of the bargain - 1 million).
The second mechanism of consolidation - buying up of authors. As experts assert(approve), any author, whose books have reached(achieved) commercial success in the market, immediately receives the offer from competitors. And as more large firms have also the big financial opportunities they, as a rule, can make the best offer. In result in the market the phenomenon which could be named vertical migration of writers is observed: from fine publishing houses - to average and from average - to the largest. The competition of offers has also one more important consequence(investigation) - gradual growth of fees. If at the end of XX century the person who has written the detective novel, received for the work of 3000 $ - 5000 now authors of best sellers can apply for tens and hundred thousand dollars. Pay such fees leaders of the market (can only according to a site www.pdffactory.com).
In the book market it is possible to note the begun process of creation of the versatile associations including publishing, book-selling, polygraphic and other structures (YOKES "АСТ", "Эксмо", "Олма-пресс").
Leaders among the book-selling companies are - "Топ-book" and YOKES "АСТ".
Large book-selling networks are:
· "Книгомир" - in 2006 the network has increased on 65 %
· "Letter" - has increased on 80 %,
· "Продалит" - has increased in more than 3 times
· "Write - read" - has increased almost in 4 times
· " New book " - has increased on 76 % (according to a site http: // b2blogger.com/research/report/561.html).
On the data of "Топ-book", on a share network розницы it is necessary only 15 % of a revolution of book production. In Russia it is totaled approximately 15 networks, but basically they work in capitals. Network trade - a fruit of vertical integration, the most part of her(it) is under the control of publishing houses or wholesalers. The shareholder " New book " and "Pedant" is publishing house " Эксмо ", "Alphabet" owns a network " Book interior " prestige " and supervises petersburg "Снарк". Publishing house " АСТ " posesses a network "Letter". Company " Топ-book " has created five networks of different formats (according to a site www.pdffactory.com).
Retail trade in books is considered not too attractive business. From one square meter of the area the book supermarket is repaid twice less, than grocery, at equal expenses for the equipment. Basic clause(article) of charges of any retail point - a rent.
However in book business one shops pay under commercial quotations, others - on preferential, and the third do not pay at all (if shop - state). In result participants of the market are put in obviously unprofitable conditions: someone is compelled to pawn the rent costs in the price of the book, and someone presumes to itself a dumping. Thereof depending on a format the level of profitability changes from 7 % up to 15 %. From the point of view of operative profitability, today still the most advantageous is the format of shop in 200 - 300 meters.
Thus, in opinion of experts, the publishing market by the current moment overtakes the book-selling market.
The book market of Russia is strongly centralized. The basic centres - Moscow and Saint Petersburg. In regions the strongest competition is observed in Novosibirsk, Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk. The greatest part of the book market of Russia is concentrated in Central, Приволжском and Northwest districts. Development of the book market in regions occurs slowly enough.
In Russia on 55-60 thousand population on the average it is necessary one shop while in the majority other European countries this parameter makes 10-15 thousand. The leader among regions after Moscow and Saint Petersburg by quantity(amount) of book shops is Samara and the Samara area - here is totaled all about 120 shops, from which 89 - independent book shops. The retail network in the Chelyabinsk area - 55 shops is not bad advanced. It is necessary to note and Novosibirsk area, where many book shops because this region - the native land of company " Топ-book ". However the problem also what the majority of book shops is concentrated in the regional centre, and on a share of fine cities is necessary a maximum of 10-15 % from all quantity(amount) of shops of area (according to a site http: // www.zakon.kz/our/news/news.asp? id=30060949).
The number of reprintings of books reaches(achieves) 50 %. However many experts cite the data according to which 40-50 % of books are sent in breakage or are distributed on charity. The reader reach no more than 62 % of all issued production. The reason of a similar situation is simple. Books which are badly sold, can not borrow(occupy) long time in warehouses. They are waited with unenviable destiny destruction.
In retail shops of the book act basically due to the wholesale companies (60 %), on a share of deliveries from publishing houses it is necessary 40 %.
There are also more global problems. There is frightening gradual decrease(reduction) of reader's demand. Cumulative circulations last five years are sharply reduced - about 702 million copies in 2003 up to 633 million in 2006. The social status of the book falls. It agrees to the data of the sociological interrogations which have been carried out(spent) in 2007 г by agency DISCOVERY Research Group., hardly there is less than half of population (44 %) books do not read. Russians read 7,1 hour per week and on this parameter borrow(occupy) 6 place in the world after India, Thailand, China, Philippines, Egypt.
And in too time the big crisis of overproduction is observed. Publishing houses, aspiring to satisfy dying away demand of the buyer, expand assortment of book production, book networks in turn work on a limit of the opportunities and not capable to pass(miss) through themselves the greater volume of production. As consequence(investigation) - overstocking and decrease(reduction) of volumes of let out circulations.
One more factor, braking development of book business in Russia, in opinion of participants of the market, is insufficiently high price for books. In the countries of Europe the average price for the book makes 15 $, in the countries of the East Europe $ 8, and in Russia $ 5-6 (fig. 2).
** According to a site http: // marketing.rbc.ru/research/5629499534314 36.shtml
Now growth of the cost price of the book quite often overtakes a rise in prices on it(her). Last years growth of all components is observed: materials, polygraphy, salaries of employees, rent of offices and warehouses, transport, the royalties, cost of rights to foreign books. The important role is played with growth of a rate of euro, you see in Europe the most part of typographical machines and a significant share of polygraphic raw material is bought. Meanwhile the share import (that is high-quality) materials, in particular, a high-grade paper, constantly grows: the reader becomes more and more exacting. Decrease(reduction) of profitability of publishing business can be counted the come to pass fact.
The natural answer could become acceleration of consolidation of the market. Large players try to save for the account of "scale effect".
Thus, today decrease(reduction) of rates of growth and stagnation is inherent in book branch. However the positive moments are observed concerning qualitative development of branch. So, the level of demand on qualitative and more expensive(dear) book production that gives a push to development in Russia of publishing and polygraphy of a high class raises. In the market distinguish 6 kinds of a seal: digital, deep, offset, трафаретная, флексография (fig. 3).
*** According to a site http: // marketing.rbc.ru/research/5629499535111 67.shtml
As it is possible to see from figure 3, 51,1 % of book production it is printed by an offset way. The second place borrows(occupies) трафаретная a seal - 22,5 %. On a share флексографии and a digital seal it is necessary accordingly 12,9 % and 11,3 % of circulation. The intaglio printing is least popular in Russia: only 2,2 % of production it is printed by a similar way
From last innovations of the book market of Russia it is possible to note occurrence of a segment of интернет-shops, literary agents and промо-platforms.
Experts estimate a share of sales through the Internet in 2-4 % from the general(common) revolution of book trade. A share of book интернет-shops in total of shops - about 3 %. However participants of the market predict to this segment of book trade growth up to 10,0 % of volume of book sales to 2010 г (according to a site. http: // www.zakon.kz/our/news/news.asp? id=30060949).
In other countries интернет-trade in books has meanwhile reached(achieved) such level only in USA.
The most known book интернет-shops of Russia: Ozone, the Bolero, 24x7, the Библио-globe, Библион, Books.ru, the Humming-bird and the Boomerang.
The largest player in the market - book shop " ozone ". In 2005 "Ozone" announced opening at once three new commodity sections. In section " ozon. Electronics " computers, games hookups, videocameras and domestic cinemas from companies Apple and HP are offered. In " ozon. Photo " cameras and accessories to them, and also services in a seal of digital photos are sold. In " ozon. Mobile " mobile phones, смартфоны and so forth are submitted. However the basic share of assortment and a sales volume of shop " ozone " is borrowed(occupied) still with books.
Besides "Ozone" announced two new services: express train - delivery (next day after the order) on Moscow in limits МКАД, and an opportunity to pay purchase by means of the consumer loans given by company " Русфинанс ".
One more large player is the book shop " bolero " which is included in интернет-holding eHouse. According to statistics, "Bolero" enters into the three of leaders on delivery of book and multimedia production. The shop carries out delivery of orders in the countries near (the CIS and the Baltics) and distant foreign countries the international ground mail and by air mail, and also special delivery services UPS and TNT. On a platform "Bolero" one more project - the thematic book shop " Iordan.ru " engaged in sale of the orthodox literature is started.
Internet - shops use various ways of delivery of orders to clients: express delivery, express mail, cash on delivery. Book интернет-trade has some features which are inherent not only Russia, but also other countries where such type of trade is applied. In comparison with other goods realized through the Internet, the book - cheap enough goods, though also very convenient from the point of view of logistic.
The quantity(amount) ассортиментных positions and buyers of book интернет-shop and, for example, shop " Библио-globe " is comparable, therefore a priority becomes the automated account of sales and registration of waybills.
The analysis of sales of shop " Библион " shows, that among clients of shop there is a great demand on the business and educational literature. It is especially possible to allocate textbooks, grants(manuals) and dictionaries on foreign languages, both European, and east. Demand for well issued art books grows, there was a certain interest to collected works. Before holidays there is a burst of interest to gift editions and art albums. Sales of audiobooks have considerably increased.
Internet - trade also does not do without problems. The basic problem book (and not only book) trade in Russia through the Internet is a logistic. Failures in work of mail that results in decrease(reduction) of quality of service of delivery are frequent.
One more problem - information. At presence of huge assortment and repeating positions absence of a uniform format of data exchange and ambiguity of used bar codes result to that many интернет-shops are compelled to be engaged in the description and identification of books independently.
In the book market, as well as on anyone the friend, exist the ways завлекания the consumer. So, in Samara the organization "ATP", which overall objective - an estimation and studying of the book market in рунете has appeared. In the beginning of 2000 the new project " the Publishing world " which represented information system publishing and распространительского the market of Russia was initiated.
In Russia the first literary agent an online, the project " National publishing house " has appeared, called essentially to facilitate position of authors. The publishing house works on a gratuitous basis for all authors who wants to publish the book.
Especially it is necessary to note the planned alliance of cafe and book shops ("Pedant", "Letter" - "Coffee - Хауз", "Букбери" - "Шоколадница") when in territory of book shop opens кофейня for visitors. Such reception is frequently used in foreign book networks and separate shops, it(he) for a long time and has well recommended itself(himself) (according to a site. http: // www.zakon.kz/our/news/news.asp? id=30060949).
One more way - overlapping of books and аудио-and videoproduction. In September, 2005 company " Снарк " has opened the first shop of the new network " From the letter up to figure ", whose assortment will consist fifty-fifty from аудио-and book production. Company " Топ-book " develops a network гипермаркетов "Лас-Книгас" where there is a интернет-cafe, cafe and a children's playground.
Other ways of attraction of buyers - in a network "Pedant" are used also, for example, there is also a children's game room, a scenic platform, film-displays.
Overlapping various at first sight formats of trade and services on one platform recently frequently is practised by the companies working in the markets where already there is no prompt growth, and the competition only amplifies. In this case is important significant to raise(increase) loyalty of clients.
However here there is a danger - expenses for the organization of additional services for buyers are significant, and they pay off slowly, sometimes bringing losses. Despite of it participants of the market positively estimate such innovations, believing, that in the future of an expense will be paid back due to increase of a stream of buyers.
In many networks there is the computer search of books assisting to buyers is fast to find the necessary goods, this service already became norm in modern book shops. It is necessary to note also, what some network book-selling companies actively have started to use advertising on radio and TV (according to a site http: // www.zakon.kz/our/news/news.asp? id=30060949).
The coming(stepping) economic crisis beats on the book market. Tightening(delaying) belts(zones), consumers try to save first of all at a leisure and entertainments - and including on books. Besides the Russian book market and in rather stable time differed low profitability of the invested capital and shortage of turnaround means. Especially it(he) is vulnerable in conditions of crisis when outflow of investments and falling of demand are observed simultaneously. To predict a situation in the book market difficultly - first of all because of his(its) opacity, however experts do(make) a number(line) of assumptions:
falling of demand will be imposed on proceeding already during last years and growth outstripping inflation both an average procurement price of books, and trading margins (that is connected to growth of rent rates).
the share of independent and municipal shops (which and so fell during last years) considerably will decrease. However the quantity(amount) of the points trading in books, hardly will decrease; it remain former due to increase of quantity(amount) of shops unspecialized розницы which have included book production in the assortment. The question is the circuit shop-in-shop (in literal sense " shop in shop ") - when the book shop becomes a part of the big department store and the trading way of the buyer runs between полок with books.
the share of large federal retail networks, such as "Топ-book" or " New book " will increase. In opinion of experts, she(it) will increase up to 35 %, and the share of regional networks will decrease to 5 %. Thus on independent book shops it is necessary only 10 % of total of sales, and the markets and trays practically will disappear.
the audience of интернет-buyers will increase, and the highest rates of growth will show regions. By 2012, according to experts, the share интернета as channel of sales will increase up to 10 %. So the most perspective becomes multiplicate strategy when online supplements offline.
Most difficultly during crisis it is necessary to small and average publishing houses which specialize basically on the intellectual literature. As is known, the assortment of book shops make books of large publishing houses - "АСТ" and "Эксмо" and some more some, included in first ten, therefore their share during crisis will be increased, while the share of small publishing houses to decrease (on materials of clause(article) " Crisis will speed up передел the book market " http: // www.ng.ru/editorial/2008-10-17/2_red.ht ml).
as a whole a situation in the book market for the last some years in the cardinal image have not changed. The majority of problems about which participants of the market spoke three more years back, have remained unsolved or are solved very slowly. Forecasts concerning fast growth of the book market were not justified.
Within several years in leaders on volume of let out circulations the following publishing houses keep: "Эксмо", "АСТ", "Education", "Дрофа", "Flamingo" / "Олма-Пресс". On circulation of ten largest publishing houses borrows(occupies) 34 % of the market, however in cost expression on them it is necessary more than half of book market of Russia. The current situation shows the tendency to consolidation and integration of publishing houses.
there Is a gradual decrease(reduction) of reader's demand. Cumulative circulations last five years are sharply reduced. The social status of the book falls, readers of books is half of population.
In the market the big crisis of overproduction is observed. Publishing houses, aspiring to satisfy dying away demand of the buyer, expand assortment of book production, book networks in turn work on a limit of the opportunities and not capable to pass(miss) through themselves the greater volume of production. As consequence(investigation) - overstocking and decrease(reduction) of volumes of let out circulations. Depending on a format and a level of trade the level of profitability changes from 7 % up to 15 %. Thus, the publishing market overtakes the book-selling market.
Leaders among the book-selling companies are - "Топ-book" and YOKES "АСТ". Under forecasts of experts, in connection with crisis, it is expected передел the market - shares of large players will be increased, while fine players will leave from the market.
the further gain of sales through the Internet and network shops Is expected, sales in supermarkets will increase also. Also it is necessary to expect increase of number of the companies rendering services in sphere of distribution, logistic, storekeeping.